With Thanksgiving comes stories of the Pilgrims taking up residence in the new world, landing at Plymouth Rock in what is now the state of Massachusetts. The pious Pilgrims certainly have a reputation for being a rigid, hard-working, and humorless group. But there are a few surprises to be found. Even though drunkenness was discouraged, beer was accepted as a drink by men, women, and also children. The daily ration on the Mayflower was a gallon a day for each individual. It took 66 days for them to sail from England to their landing place of Plymouth Rock. Hmmm…66 days times 1 gallon per person times the number of people on the ship. It seems that a lot of room on board the ship was devoted to storing the beer ration.
Even sex was not taboo under the right circumstances. They had a matter-of-fact attitude about sex as long as it was between a married couple. It's when sex strayed from being the exclusive right between a married couple that the stories get interesting.
Studies by a group of anthropologists at the University of Virginia found that the Pilgrims spent a great deal of time thinking about how to punish those with impure thoughts and actions. Studies also discovered that in 11% of the marriages at Plymouth Colony the bride was already pregnant. The same study estimates that as many as 50% of the Pilgrims engaged in premarital sex. Definitely not an image that fits the stereotype of the staid Pilgrims.
But what about the actions and activities of those naughty Pilgrims? As with so much in life, there's the façade and then there's the underlying reality.
Although not liberal in their thinking or lifestyle, the Pilgrims were not as uptight as history would have us believe and apparently not as uptight as their cousins, the Puritans. Both the Pilgrims and the Puritans were English Protestants who believed that the Church of England was in need of reform. Although both groups were strict Calvinists, they differed in their approach to how the Church of England should be reformed. The Pilgrims were more inclined to separate from the church (therefore known as separatists), while the Puritans wanted to reform the church from within. The Pilgrims were the first group of Puritans to seek religious freedom in the New World (thus separating from the church). As strict Calvinists, members of both groups believed in original sin, predestination and the literal interpretation of the Bible as God’s word.
The Pilgrims tried to create a strict religious society, but had an understanding and mercy unusual for their time in history. As time passed, however, intolerance grew and was reflected in their laws and clearly demonstrated by the notorious Salem witch trials. Innocent people were convicted and put to death on evidence that later even the Pilgrims declared to be inadmissible (I saw it in a dream, the spirit of my dead grandmother came to me and said…).
According to the Mayflower Compact, the colony was to establish laws based on Biblical teachings "for the glory of God and the advancement of the Christian faith." The Old Testament book of Leviticus was the basis for most of their laws, a biblical source that definitely predated Christianity's teachings of love and forgiveness rather than reflecting those teachings. Adultery? Death. A man has sex with his daughter-in-law? Death. Sodomy? Death. Bestiality? Death. Are you beginning to see a pattern? :)
But interestingly, the Pilgrims did not typically enforce the death penalty for sex offenses. There is only one known case in which the convicted offender was actually put to death for sex crimes. It was the case of Thomas Graunger, a teenage boy apparently at the peak of his raging hormones who sought satisfaction from any and all sources available to him…those sources being the farm animals.
According to Plymouth Governor William Bradford, "He was this year detected of buggery, and indicted for the same, with a mare, a cow, two goats, five sheep, two calves and a turkey."
Even though Thomas was the only one executed for a sex crime, punishments were routinely severe even with far lesser sex crimes and usually meant whippings, being put into the stocks, and fines.
Men were not the only offenders in Plymouth colony. The prim women weren't always so pious either. Women were often caught since the evidence of their dalliances were babies. The records of the times are filled with one out-of-wedlock child after another. Babies showing up just a few months after marriage were also evidence of wrong doing. Pre-marital sex was severely punished. Fines were levied even for making passes, for appearing to have a lascivious carriage in public, or partying in mixed company at an unseemly time of night.
Sex outside marriage, even between two unmarried consenting adults, usually meant a whipping and fines. If the woman became pregnant, the man had to either marry her or pay for the child's upbringing. The man was usually placed in the stocks and whipped while the woman was made to watch. Sometimes mercy was granted as in the case of a servant, Jane Powell. Following years of hard servitude, she was destitute and had agreed to having sex in the hopes of marrying the man. Apparently the court found her plea convincing and she went unpunished.
Even though the Pilgrims imposed strict punishment for crimes, they also understood human temptations. In 1656, Katheren Aines and William Paule were sentenced for committing adultery. William was whipped and forced to pay the costs of his imprisonment. Katheren was whipped, imprisoned and forced to wear a letter on her shoulder designating her as an adulteress. (Calling Nathaniel Hawthorne!) However, Katheren's husband, Alexander, was also punished. Alexander had left his family for some time and treated her badly during their marriage. The Pilgrims viewed him as guilty of "exposing his wife to such temptations." Alexander was required to pay for his wife's imprisonment, and sit in the stocks while William and Katheren were whipped.